beheerder van de facebook groep: PHOENICIA: The history & legacy of the Phoenicians

dinsdag 13 december 2016

BAAL

BAAL

Originally, this word is a common noun or a generic name for the Semitic b‘l = owner, Sir, husband, as in M ​​l q r t Ṣ r (CIS I, 122 = 47 = KAI TSSI III, 21-22). However, in the Syro-Phoenician domain means it an early deity and almost always of the storm. Baal is already found in Ebla (ca.2300 BC) at Abu Salabikh and then Mari and in the el-Amarna texts. In Ugarit Baal is as BaalSaphon very important as the son of Dagan. He reigns as the god of the storm, clouds, the thunder, the lightning, the rain and snow. He is the almighty (’al’iyn), master of the earth (ZBL b ‘ l ’rṢ) and king. His myth gives his death by Môt, but also his resurrection as a god of vegetation. He is also a master of the order against the chaos of the Sea (Yam), he often is depicted as a bull, in which he anthropomorphic with a helmet with horns and a bundle of lightning.
In the Phoenician texts Baal comes forward as follows:
- Yd B ‘l = blessed by Baal (KAI 30.4);
- Brk B ‘l = blessed by Baal (KAI 26 A, 1.1);
- B 'br B ‘l w’lm = by the grace of Baal and the gods;
- P n B ‘l = face of Baal (adding Tanit);
- Š m B ‘l = name of Baal (KAI 14.18 at Astarte);
- S m B ‘l = effigy of Baal (KAI 12, 3-4).
- Baal of Sidon (KAI 14.18);
- Baal Kalenderis (KAI 26A, from 11.19 - 20);
- Baal Saphon (KAI 69.1);
- Baal of Lebanon (KAI 31.1-2);
- Baal Hermon (Jg 3,3);
- Baal of Tabor and Carmel.
Furthermore, we find Baal amongst others in the following combinations:
- Baal Hamon (among others KAI 24.16);
- Baal ymm (KAI 37 B4);
- Baal Mgnm (KAI78,3-4);
- Baal Ṣmd (KAI 24.15);
- Baal pn ’rṢ = Baal face of the earth (KAI 27.14 -15);
- Baal šmm = Baal of the heavens (KAI 4.3);
- Baal KR .. (Karatepe);
- Baal ’dr (o.a.KAI 9 B 5).


Literature:
- G.Pettinato, Preugaritic Documentation of Baal, The Biblical World, New York, 1980, p.203-209.
- E.Lipinski et al .: Dictionnaire de la civilisation phénicienne and punique, Brepols, 1992 Leuven.

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