beheerder van de facebook groep: PHOENICIA: The history & legacy of the Phoenicians

maandag 23 januari 2017

Baal Shamem 3

Plautus has a remark about Baalsamen (Phoen.1027) and Philo of Byblos (Eus.P.E.1.10.7) thinks of a sun god or cosmic god. A Greek magical papyrus from the 4th century AD sees in him the son of Ouranos ( There is no image description of him!!!!!!!!!!
- O.Eissfeldt, Ba‘alšamêm und Jahwé, ZAW 57 (1939), p.1-31 (Kleine Schriften 11, Tübingen 1963, p.171-198);
- D.Sourdel, Les cultes du Hauran à l’époque romaine, Paris 1952, p.19-31 ;
- H.J.W.Drijvers, Ba‘al Shamin, de heer van de hemel, Assen 1974;
- F.Vattoni, Aspetti del culto del Signore del cieli, Augustinianum 12, (1972), p.479-515, 13 (1973) p.37-73;
- R.A.Oden, Ba‘al šamêm and ’El, CBQ 39 (1977), p.457-473;
- J.Teixidor, The Pagan God, Princeton 1977, p.40-42, 130-140;
- G.Garbini, Gune Balsemen, StMagr.12 (1980), p.89-92;
- E.Lipinski e.a., Dictionnaire de la civilisation phénicienne et punique, Brepols, Leuven 1992, p.61-62.
- Ch.R.Krahmalkov, Phoenician-Punic Dictionary, StPhoen XV, OLA 90, Leuven, 2000, P.119-120 :
B‘LšMN = Ba‘alsamem (Lord of the Heavens, Baal as  storm a god, the master of thunder and lightning.
KAI 26 A III 18/19 (ph): b‘lšmm w’l ’rṢ wšmš ’lm wkl dr bn ’lm = Baalsamem and El, Creator of the Earth and eternal Semes and the entire family of the gods.
KAI 64.1 (Pu): l’dn lb‘<l>šmm l’ynṢm = <Dedicated> to the Lord Baalsamem of Isonim.
What about all these abbreviations? I will give an explanation the next time.

Baal Shamem 2

Baal Shamêm occurs worldwide, for example:
Baal Shamêm also appears in a Phoenician inscription from Umm el-Amed (KAI 18), where he had his own temple and he is named in Greek Zeus Hupsistos (Zeus, the very highest), or Zeus Megistos Keraunios (CIS II, 3912 = Zeus, the huge terrible), or Hagios Theos Ouranios. Under the title "God, the holy heaven" he was worshiped until the 3rd century AD in the Tyrian temple Qedesh in Galilee. His cult boomed under the Seleucids, under the name 'Olympic Zeus " and they made it a kind of god for their dynasty. He was probably named under this name by Flavius ​​Josephus (C.Ap.1,113.118 + A.J.VIII 5.3) and by Eupolemus (FGH 723 fr.2), who attribute the dedication to King Hiram I of Olympian Zeus from a pillar of gold in his sanctuary on the island of Tyre.
Furthermore, we find the very high at Byblos on  a pedestal of a statue of Zeus (M.Dunand, Fouilles the Byblos 1, No. 1141) and on a bronze tablet at Baotécécé dedicated to Zeus keraunios (IGLS VII, 4041). In Carthage two texts are called priests of Baal Shamêm (CIS I 379 + 5955) and a memorial stone he stands at the head of deities, before Tanit, Baal  Hamon and Baal mgnm. A consecration at Cagliari (KAI 64 = ICO Sard 231) mentions a Baal Shamêm on the island of the sparrow (Inosim = Carloforte).
An inscription from Cyprus (Kition III F2) also reports to him.

Baal Shamem 1

B ‘ l š m m (Phoen), B ‘ l š m y n (Aram), Ba-al-sa-me-me (akk) = Lord of the heavens, as St.Augustine says in his Quaest.Hept.VII 16 par Dominus Coeli. This title was already from the 2nd millennium given to the highest deities in Syro-Palestine, Anatolia and the Sumero-Akkadian countries. In the 1st millennium BC it is a private independent deity and became widespread in the Aramaic world from the 9th to the 3rd century BC. In Phoenicia he was starting familiar with the inscription of Yahimilk, King of Byblos in the 10th century BC, where he was mentioned even befor Baalat Gubal and the other gods of Byblos (KAI 4 = TSSI, III 6.3). In the 8th century BC we see the Phoenician inscription of Karatepe, where he is the head of the gods, calling Azitawadu to ensure that his consecration will continue (KAI 26 = TSSI III 15A, III, 18). In the Luvitic version of this inscription he is the "god of thunder in the sky." This is consistent with the treaty between Baal and Asarhaddon (7th century BC). He will be accompanied by Baal Saphon and Baal Malage (AfO.Beih.9.p.109, col.IV.10). Some contemporary authors recognize in him the Baal of Jezabel, she seemed to see on the Carmel (1 Kings18), but also a greek ordination from the 2nd-3rd century AD still refers to as the "Zeus Héliopolite of Carmel" (IEJ 2 1952.p.118-124).